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Curcumin - An Alternative Treatment for Depression

Curcumin - An Alternative Treatment for Depression

In depth report for an alternative depression management

Depression and major depressive disorders are a common problem and adversely affect the quality of life, increasing the risk of mortality.

It is estimated that depression affects more than 30% of the population, with a repeat rate of at least 45% among patients who have already suffered from it.

Therefore, depression is defined as a deeply recurrent, chronic condition, with the recurrent nature of the disorder being the primary consideration for its treatment.

The side effects of antidepressant drugs have been reported as the main cause of poor compliance in treatment, but also as a limiting factor for long-term maintenance of conduction, which is necessary to prevent relapses.

It has been reported that up to 50% of patients with major depression discontinue antidepressant therapy only due to side effects.

Curcumin was discovered a century ago.

Studies have shown that curcumin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant properties.

Previous epidemiological studies have examined the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and have shown that it helps in reduced cognitive functioning of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, dementia and cognitive deficits in the elderly.

Administration of curcumin is believed to help treat depression through receptor mechanisms.

It is unclear whether a particular mechanism is responsible for most of its antidepressant properties or whether it is a set of neurophysiological effects that facilitate the antidepressant response.

It could be assumed that the mechanisms responsible for the greatest antidepressant effects may vary according to the main neurophysiological cause of the depressive symptoms of an individual.

There is a list of possible ways in which curcumin can improve a person's mood.

BDNF increase (Cerebral neurotrophic factor):

Studies have shown that curcumin may increase BDNF levels in animal models.

Low levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor are believed to cause a series of neurological disorders, including depression.

People with depression tend to experience abnormally low levels of BDNF.

An increase in BDNF is believed to improve mental health, well-being, and mood.

Another notable effect of increased BDNF is that it stimulates the growth of new neurons in the hippocampus (via neurogenesis).

Neurogenesis may be one of the mechanisms by which curcumin improves depressive symptoms.

Segmental results:

Curcumin is capable of modulating gene function through epigenetics.

In particular, curcumin appears to regulate histone deacetylases, histone acetyltransferases, DNA I methyltransferase, and miRNAs - which facilitate changes in gene expression.

It is the culmination of these pathogenic effects that are believed to be the result of anti-cancer and chemoprotective effects.

However, it should also be borne in mind that these pathogenic effects may also indirectly affect genes that affect a person's mood.

Genes are complicated by the fact that the function of one is usually intertwined with the function of others.

A change in the expression of many genes from curcumin administration can improve mood by altering the function of other genes (affecting mood) or may directly improve mood in certain individuals through specified pathogenic mechanisms.

HFA Axis Configuration:

In cases of depression, it is often observed that patients have an increase in HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis activity, often with the extent of overactivation.

This over-activity of the HPA axis can result from a combination of gene factors, exposure to repulsive stimuli, or exposure to neurotoxins, etc.

Most people with depression will experience abnormal activity on the HPA axis - if this is a major cause or just another neurological event is unknown.

However, it is understood that administration of curcumin may form the HFA axis, thus normalizing its function.

A decrease in HPA hyperactivity may, in turn, cause a cascade of secondary therapeutic effects throughout the cortex, leading to improvement in depressive symptoms.

This is the differentiation of HFA that can also protect against stress, cognitive impairment, and neurodegeneration

Neurotransmitter levels:

Research supports the idea that administration of curcumin reverses the abnormal expression of neurotransmitters in models of depression.

In one study, people with depressive symptoms exhibited abnormally low levels of serotonin (exhaustion), norepinephrine and dopamine (in the prefrontal cortex).

Abnormally high concentrations of 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) and DOPAC (4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) may occur.

Chronic administration of curcumin to these models reverses serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine deficiencies.

Also decreased increased concentrations of 5-HIAA and DOPAC.

This shows that curcumin appears to modulate neurotransmitters significantly, with formation of the monoaminergic system (monoamine neurotransmitters), which may be an important mechanism by which reverses the symptoms of depression.

Reduction of inflammation of nerves:

Scans in the brain of people with major depression reveal that most of them show significant inflammation of the nerves compared to those without depressive disorders. If inflammation is a manifestation of depression or vice versa, it is unknown.

Based on this, many believe that by reducing this inflammation of nerves (even a little), depressive symptoms are likely to improve.

Since curcumin is known that generally reduces inflammation through modulation of proinflammatory cytokines, it may be that the main mechanism by which treats depression by reducing inflammation of nerves.

Curcumin also appears to inhibit the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which is activated by the mitogen protein kinase which, when activated, inhibits the function of the glucocorticoid receptor.

A subset of glucocorticoid-resistant individuals show depression, a manifestation that appears to be reversed by curcumin through JNK inhibition.

Mitochondrial repair:

Mitochondria are like "power plants" within cells, so they are responsible for energy production.

If mitochondria are not working properly, it is very likely that there could be depression, depressed behavior, or chronic fatigue.

People with depression often experience dysfunction of intracellular mitochondrial metabolism in specific areas of the brain associated with depression.

Chronic mitochondrial dysfunction within certain tissues is also associated with depressive symptoms.

Preliminary evidence suggests that curcumin is able to repair mitochondrial damage, thus correcting malfunction and potentially enhancing the functionality of all mitochondria.

A repair of mitochondrial dysfunction should be seen as a mechanism by which curcumin contributes to relieving depression.
Pathological reorganization of the nervous system:

It is considered the pathological re-duodenation of the brain that occurs in disturbed states.

As neuropsychiatric disorders show a significant increase in depression in severity, it is literally important to restore cerebral function.

The more and / or more severe the symptoms of depression, the greater is the pathological reorganization of the nervous system of the depressive disorder.
There is some evidence that pathological reorganization is facilitated by neuroinflammation (as a result of proinflammatory cytokines), oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and altered neurotrophin levels.
When taken chronically, curcumin can stop the pathological reorganization of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, possibly by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and restoring low levels of BDNF.
Neurotransmitters, peripheral activation, and brain metabolism appear to be healthy and normalized after administration of curcumin.

The effects of curcumin on neurodeposition are best demonstrated in studies of people suffering from neurodegenerative disorders.

When given to people with neurodegenerative disorders, curcumin seems to improve cognitive deficits.

A mechanism by which signaling of tumor necrosis factor receptor α - 2 (TNFR2) is altered when neurological function is restored.

It also appears to correct the deficits and / or the abnormal increase in neurotransmitters in areas associated with depression.



Oxidative stress:

Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormally low levels of important vitamins and antioxidants.

A specific biomarker associated with depression is the reduction in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), an enzyme responsible for significant antioxidant effects throughout the body.

Curcumin administration acts as an antioxidant, reducing both oxidative stress and oxidative stress.

In addition, reducing free radicals also improves mood
Repairs of intestinal super-permeability:

In cases of intestinal overdosing, the lining of the intestine becomes superpermeable, allowing too many toxins, germs, and immature foods to leak.

This is referred to as Leaky Gut Syndrome.

There are some indications that bowel leak syndrome could be a direct cause of depression, at least in some cases.

The syndrome has been associated with a number of problems, such as: ATP depletion, proinflammatory cytokine production, and gut flora (microbiome) disorders.

Curcumin seems to repair the various aspects of intestinal permeability, and possibly, it is a mechanism by which it improves depressive symptoms.

If the toxins are no longer circulating throughout the system and the Leaky Gut Syndrome is corrected, it is likely to have beneficial effects on neurological function as well.

As a result, a reversal of bowel permeability can directly improve a person's mood and / or neuropsychiatric symptoms.

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