Vitamin D deficiency and the consequences of intervention from preconception to infancy
Vitamin D: Before, during, and after Pregnancy
Effect on Neonates and Children
A worldwide high prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency has become of growing concern because of potential adverse effects on human health, including pregnant women and their offspring.
Beyond its classical function as a regulator of calcium and phosphate metabolism, together with its fundamental role in bone health at every stage of life, its deficiency has been associated with multiple adverse health effects. The classic effects of VD deficiency in pregnant and neonates have been late hypocalcemia and nutritional rickets.
Nevertheless, recent studies have linked VD to fertility and 25(OH)D with several clinical conditions in pregnancy: preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, higher incidence of cesarean section, and preterm birth, while in infants, the clinical conditions are low birth weight, lower bone mass and possible relationship with the development of such diseases as bronchiolitis, asthma, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and autism included as VD non-classical actions.
This review emphasizes the roles of Vitamin D deficiency and the consequences of intervention from preconception to infancy.
Vitamin D: Before, during and after Pregnancy: Effect on Neonates and Children by José Luis Mansur 1, Beatriz Oliveri 2, Evangelina Giacoia, David Fusaro 4, and Pablo René Costanzo 5. (1)Endocrinology and Metabolism Center, La Plata B1902ADQ, Argentina. (2)Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Diseases Laboratory, Institute of Immunology, Genetics, and Metabolism (INIGEM), School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Hospital de Clinicas, University of Buenos Aires, Mautalen, Health and Research, Buenos Aires C1053ABH, Argentina. (3)Endocrinology Service Hospital Posadas, University of Buenos Aires, El Palomar C1053ABH, Argentina. (4)Buenos Aires Gynecological Institute ACOG, Service Fundación Favaloro, Buenos Aires C1053ABH, Argentina. (5)Andrology Section, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nuclear Medicine Service, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires PC C1199ABB, Argentina *Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed. Academic Editor: Luigi Barrea. Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091900 Received: 26 February 2022 / Revised: 18 April 2022 / Accepted: 25 April 2022 / Published: 1 May 2022 *(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Vitamin D during Pregnancy on Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Outcomes)